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Antique handmade, long piled nomad rugs are rare and unique. Primitive Rug reveals the stories of the nomadic people who wandered the deserts and mountains of Central Asia and beyond, leaving behind these woven works of art. In our store you will find an exclusive selection of old, nomad made rugs. 

These primitive hand woven rugs are from the Amu Darya in the north of Afghanistan, Samarkand in Uzbekistan, the Afghan Pamirs, eastern Turkey, Iran, Spain, eastern Europe, and the mountainous regions of central Afghanistan.

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Shaggy Long Pile Tribal Nomad Rugs

Filtering by Category: Lizhnyk

Woven Felt

Robert Cobcroft

Siirt and Likhnyk blankets are woven inside the territories of early steppe nomads. Woven blankets that are then teased into a matted felt like finish resembling animal hides. The lizhnyk pummeled first by the power of water inside a Valylo before being treated with a teasle to raise the nap. A throwback to primitive techniques, these two blankets are still made today in the Ukraine and Turkey.

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Lizhnyk history and the other long piled Kover or Kots

Robert Cobcroft

Lizhnyk and the other long-piled Ukarainian primitive rug the "kover or kots".

In the Ukraine a knotted long-piled rug tradition exists. Knotted rugs with long pile known as the kover or kots were woven in the Ukraine up to the nineteenth century, resembling Tulu from Anatolia and other eastern European long-piled rugs. A completely different technique is used to create the kover or kots by comparison to lizhnyk's woven by Hutsuls in the Carpathian mountains. The lizhnyk is a flat weave which is then felted by the action of water in a valylo. These two types of long-piled weavings from the Ukraine are so distinctly different, their early origins are brought into question. One has long knotted pile, the other felted faux long-pile. Knotted long-pile carpets known as the kover, kots, or koberets were described by Vasyleva in  Embroidery of Polissya, Artistic Fabrics, Carpet-Making, "Kover, kots, koberets were fabrics with long sheared nap. In the process of their manufacture special knots of colored wool were tied to warp threads, with their subsequent shearing. Owing to that the pattern was created only on the right side. The pattern's character depended on the height and thickness of the nap."  According to Vasyleva these long-piled weavings were used by the "well-to-do population" for wall decoration also serving as insulation. Vasyleva states that home production was to satisfy the needs of the general population with workshop production creating more expensive versions.1 The Permanent Representative of Ukraine to the Council of Europe advises that  "kots are handmade in the western, mainly Hutsul region".2 Outside of the Ukraine these kots or kover long-piled knotted primitive rugs are almost unknown.

Confined today to the Carpathians, Nykorak contends that, "long - piled carpets" called lizhnyk were woven all over the Ukraine before the end of the 19th century. The kover or kots were also widespread throughout the Ukraine up to the end of the nineteenth century. Nykorak also refers to surviving lizhnyk production in the Carpathians, "before the end of the 19th century lizhnylc were spread and produced all over Ukraine, having survived in the Carpathians only."3 The valylo a key requirement in the creation of lizhnyk could be a factor in lizhnyk resurgence in the region.  Architectural relics, valylo need to be in working order so that the fibres of the lizhnyk can be successfully matted.

Revival of lizhnyk production during the twentieth century is reminiscent of the story of siirt blankets produced in the province and town of Siirt in Eastern Turkey, as well as alpujarra inlaid loop pile rugs from the province of Granada Spain, all serving the tourist trade in their respective regions.

Once widespread throughout all of the Ukraine, the need for shaggy, warm woollen textiles was met by both home and workshop production.  The kots or kover appears to have been relegated to the history books with production ceasing sometime late in the nineteenth century. The lizhnyk remaining a favourite with production continuing today, preserving along with it the practice of felting woven items with the action of water in a valylo.

Read more on Kots click here.

For further information on the valylo, you can also use the keyword Валило.

Thanks to T. Kara Vasyleva and Olеna Nykorak we can gain some further insight into the production of these obscure weavings.

1. T. Kara Vasylyeva Doctor of Science in Fine Arts Embroidery of Polissya, Artistic Fabrics, Carpet-Making

"Carpets produced at home were aimed at satisfaction of population's needs. The first guild organizations emerged in Ukrainian towns in the XIV-XV centuries, in the XVI-XVII centuries their activity reached its peak, and since the XVIII century weaving manufactories [sic] started to develop actively. They emerged on the basis of carpet-making workshops, which were attached to landowners' estates. At the olden [sic] times depending on the manufacturing technique and functional purpose carpet ware in Ukraine had different names: kover /carpet/, koberets, kots, nalavnyk /bench top cover/, kylym /carpet/, etc. The most ancient name is "kover", since the XVI century the names "kots", "lizhnyk" were spread. The name "kylym" /the present Ukrainian word for "carpet"/ appeared in Ukraine at the beginning of the XVII century. Kover, kots, koberets were fabrics with long sheared nap. In the process of their manufacture special knots of colored wool were tied to warp threads, with their subsequent shearing. Owing to that the pattern was created only on the right side. The pattern's character depended on the height and thickness of the nap. Such manufactured articles cost much, they were mostly used by well-to-do population for the purpose of heat insulation and decoration of walls. Lizhnyks made of coarse threads were very widespread. Nalavnyks - long narrow carpets having crosswise or lengthwise ornament - were also in demand. Carpets proper were used first of all to decorate the walls, as well as to cover tables, benches, chests. Weavers paid special attention to their ornamentation; it was the ornamentation that most fully showed the taste and the skill."

2. "Kots" The Permanent Representative of Ukraine to the Council of Europe. Web. 2 November 2011

3. Olеna NYKORAK Shevchenko Scientific Society Lviv Traditional Ukrainian Lizhnykarstva 1995 "The 16-17th-century archival and other data give us evidence about the production of lizhnylcs (home woven thick woollen long-piled carpets) in the Ukrainian Carpathian region, Bukovyna, Volynia, Polissia, as well as in the Chernihiv, Kharkiv, and Kherson regions.  On the basis provided by the field exploration data, gathered by the author herself, and the examination of the museum exhibits, the author contends that before the end of the 19th century lizhnylc were spread and produced all over Ukraine, having survived in the Carpathians only. Since the turn of the 20th century in Hutsulshchyna, and since the middle of this century, in Boikivshchyna, the koverets (a patterned lizhnyk) came into production alongside with the achromatic, polychromatic, striped and one-colour lizhnyks, already in common use. Its most characteristic patterns are geometrical: transversely striped, net-like, and medallion-shaped. Nowadays the most ingenious compositions of lizhnyks and lizhnyk-like chair-covers are designed after typical Hutsul embroideries and cloths."

Lizhnyk - primitive hairy rug

Robert Cobcroft

Faux fur self born Samoridny Lizhnyk, Yavoriv - Carpathians Ukraine Circa 2005 Softened in the valyo, the "self born, samoridny" lizhnyk

Lizhnyk are said to be self born - samoridny, shorn from the back of sheep, vigorously washed wool is loosely spun then carefully woven. Plunged into a hole in the river bed, forces of nature act on every fibre, fast running water guided by a water wheel pulverise the lizhnyk creating a matted felt like finish. The resulting imitation fur lizhnyk is dried in the sun then both sides are teased and combed to achieve the final effect resembling a hairy primordial faux beast from the wilds of the Carpathians. Unique in shaggy rug weaving worldwide the lizhnyk bears the hallmarks of being truly samoridny. The combined effects of loosely spun thick wool wefts, their subsequent punishment in the valylo and final teasing of the fibres resulting in a furry matted animal fur-like product is not only ingenious but practical in it's many uses. No where else has the wool of sheep been rendered in such bestial form, a true primitive rug type.

Lizhnyk blankets could be considered as woven felts, see the post titled "woven felt" for more on the valylo - lizhnyk woven felt connection.

Woven Felt

The Lizhnyk illustrated is small measuring only 127 cm x 70 cm. the colours are all natural. The colours are all natural sheep wool from the Carpathians.

Lilya at Etnostyle has written a very informative post about Lizhnyk with amazing pictures of a Valylo.

The "self born" samoridny faux fur look

Hairy shaggy primitive animal like Lizhnyk rug

Samoridny the self born rug called Lizhnyk

Robert Cobcroft

The Hutsuls describe their lizhnyk rugs as samoridny literally self born. Samoridny rugs called lizhnyk are created by Hutsuls, highlanders who have inhabited the Carpathian mountains of the Ukraine for centuries. Yavoriv village is famous for creating self born lizhnyks. 1 Ancient myth, magic, folklore, fable and customs bind the Hutsuls to nature, spawning the concept of self born or samoridny. Lizhnyk history spans four hundred years or more, the Hutsuls still weave lizhnyk rugs in the 21st century. The tradition of the lizhnyk is noted as being important for wealthy Carpathians in the 17th to 19th centuries and then dying out only to be revived in the 20th century. 2

Origins of the Hutsuls are clouded. Sarah Johnstone and Greg Bloom in their book "Ukraine" give the following description "They were first identified as a separate ethnic group at the end of the 18th century. According to some accounts, the "Hutsul" encompass several tribes - including Boiki, Lemi, and Pokuttian - so who and what they are is open to some interpretation. Ethnographers describe Hutsul life as dominated by herding sheep from high mountain pastures (polonyny)  to lowland fields, with a little agriculture and forestry thrown in. They point to a dialect incomprehensible to other Ukrainians." 3 Another account has Romanian shepherds in the 13th and 14th centuries wandering with their flocks moving along the Carpathians into what is today the Ukraine. 4 Wikipedia records their origins in the Slavic kochul - "wanderer","migrant", in reference to their semi-nomadic lifestyle, to the name of the Turkic tribe of the Uzy.5 Shepherding and the nomadic life of heading for high ground in the summer and returning to lowlands in the winter are synonymous with long piled primitive rugs. Early shepherds settling in the Carpathians could have brought with them weaving traditions passed on through generations of nomadic ancestors wandering through time and space.

Lizhnyks are woven on handmade wooden looms. With deep respect for tradition the primitive looms are created with as much care as the lizhnyks themselves. The process of weaving begins with the selection of the highest quality local wool which is then washed. 6 Spinning wheels, vereteno, are employed to spin the wool. 7 Wool for the wefts is loosely spun and woven into a weft faced plain weave, this allows for the subsequent "softening" of the wefts in the valylo. Many different sizes and formats are produced from small items up to large bed covers to ward off the bitter cold of Carpathian mountain winters.

After the lizhnyk is woven it's taken down to the nearest stream and plunged into the "valylo". Water is channeled along the stream in a wooden structure known as a "dzholob" . Water gains momentum for some distance before it smashes into a water wheel inserted into the valylo. The lizhnyk is churned about in the valylo, also known as Валило, until the loosely spun wool wefts take on a felt like consistency. Once this intensive process is completed the lizhnyk is retrieved and dried in the sun. The final hairy woolen form of the lizhnyk is created by combing the rug in a similar manner as Anatolian and North West Persian blankets named after the town of Siirt in South Western Turkey. 8,9 Lizhnyk fibres are teased up forming a nap on both sides unlike the siirt's where the nap is only teased up on one side to form a raised design. The year 1515 is the earliest date where the use of the valylo is recorded. The method was known to ancient slavs in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD.10 Variations exist in the description of the process at the valylo, some simply describe this as a hole made in the river bed where the fibres of the lizhnyk are beaten until soft.


Hutsul women also wove kilims and weaving is an important part of traditional Ukrainian life, this is highlighted by the following account by Natalia Havryl’iuk of Hutsul funeral rituals. For women, tools associated with the fiber arts are commonly placed in the coffin. Thus, weaving implements, drop spindles, a distaff (kuzhil), a needle and thread, some wool or a plaited straw band (pereveslo) are items routinely placed in a woman’s coffin. 11

Samoridny lizhnyk's have many uses, as blankets, floor rugs, chair covers, and some even take the form of tailored jackets. When the Hutsul's say that their lizhnyk's will keep you warm in the winter they mean it, I've owned one for a few years now and with it's extraordinary samoridny properties it will out perform any Central Asian julkhyrs, Anatolian tulu, yatak or shaggy rug creation from Morocco for warmth. Lizhnyks are seen at wedding receptions or draped over chairs in halls. At funerals lizhnyk's are offered as gifts. Someone in the procession takes it upon himself to carry ritual food as well as sacrificial and memorial gifts to the cemetery. These are given out in commemoration of the deceased (na spomyn dushi, or among the Hutsuls, na prostybih). In Bukovyna, these gifts are called pomany and are especially numerous. They always include a kalach and candle, as well as a household item, such as rushnyk, kerchief, rug (nalavnyk or lizhnyk) and sometimes even a chicken or a sheep. 12 Also noted as being used in the church and at weddings, laid on the floor the lizhnyk is meant to bring wealth and happiness to the couple. "Lizhnyks are also used as rugs laid on the floor at home or in church. Before the worshippers enter, they take off their footwear — I saw it in a church in the town of Yavoriv, the centre of Hutsul lizhnyk-making." 13

Take a tour of the numerous small museums of the Carpathians, littered with examples of lizhnyk's, hung on walls, draped over chairs and on the floor. Alongside the many lizhnyk's are historic hand made looms.

Recently lizhnyk's have appeared in the international market in many varied colours, some with brightly dyed wool and others using all natural wool to form the diamond shaped patterns. Sometimes mistakenly referred to as Indian blankets.


For many examples of early Ukrainian weaving visit the The State Museum of Ukrainian Decorative Folk Art. The  Museum Circle of Prykarpattja consists of many small museums housing examples of Lizhnyk's and looms. Of particular note is the  Museum of folk art of Hutsulschyna.


Lizhnyk on the loom

The Ukrainian Museum and Library of Stamford contains many historic photographs of the Carpathians and Hutsuls at work and play.

Next time someone's ill or it's cold at your place consider the magical and warming properties of the samoridny lizhnyk, the self born rug from the Carpathian mountains of the Ukraine.

Bibliography LIZHNYK

1. "Lizhnyk" Welcome to Ukraine. Web 14 December 2006

2. "Lizhnyk" Ukrainian RUG blanket LIZHNYK 57"x30" wool handmade. Web. URL no longer available. 12 July 2006

3. "Hutsuls Sheep" Google books. Web. 14 January 2011

4. "Carpathians" Web. 14 December 2006

5.  "Hutsuls" Wikipedia. Web. 15 January 2011

6.  "Lizhnyk" Ukrainian RUG blanket LIZHNYK 57"x 30" wool handmade. Web. URL no longer available. 12 July 2006

7.   "Lizhnyk" Lizhnyk - Traditional coverlet from Carpathians. Web. URL no longer available.  6 May 2009

8. "Valylo" Etnostyle. Web. With thanks to Lilya from Etnostyle for describing the process by which lizhnyks are felted using the Valylo and the final stages of drying and further teasing of the nap.

9. Wertime. J Back to Basics. Primitive Pile Rugs of West and Central Asia Hali 100 1998  pp.86-87.

10. "Lizhnyk" Etnostyle Lizhnyk Valylo Photographs.Web.

11. "Ukraine Ethnography" Havryl’iuk, Natalia The Structure and Function of Funeral Rituals and Customs in Ukraine
 Institute of Ethnomusicology, Folklore and Ethnography of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Web. pdf

12. ibid.,

13. "Lizhnyk" Welcome to Ukraine.op. cit.,


The State Museum of Ukrainian Decorative Folk Art

The collection of rugs, carpets and hand-woven and printed fabrics
contains over 5,000 exhibits. Rugs and carpets alone are not very
numerous, but those on display in the museum give one an
opportunity to trace the development of rug-making in the Ukraine,
a craft noted for its distinctly national style and the great variety of
local peculiarities.

Museum Circle of Prykarpattja
 Museum of folk art of Hutsulschyna

The museum was created in Yavoriv village in October
1961 and transferred to Yavoriv secondary school in 2004.
It is located on the second floor of the school, occupies one
room with the area 36 sq.m. There are 255 main exhibits.
Museum profile: art. Among the interesting exhibits:
objects of wood, carved boxes, ceramics, homemade
weaved goods – “lizhnyk” (blanket-cover). Just lizhnyk 
from Yavoriv village is one of the most popular kinds of interior weaving that accomplish both decorative and
 customer functions.

Ukrainian Museum and Library of Stamford Conneticut 

The Library collection has in its holdings three albums of original photographs depicting the  Carpathian Mountains and its inhabitants- the Hutsuls. The photographs were taken by Henryk Gasiorowski  (1878-1947) in the 1920-30s. He was a Major in the Polish Army, a geographer and an author of one of the best tourist guide books to the Carpathian mountains and its environs, which was published in L’viv in 1933. He considered the Hutsul region to be on of the most beautiful corners of the Carpathians and the Hutsuls to be the most fascinating ethnographic group of people not only in the Halychyna area but in the whole of Europe.

National Geographic Society Portrait of a Hutsul Village November 1997

Polec. Andrej Distant Glens and Moors: The Hutsuls Today Warsaw 1997

Museum of folk art of Hutsulschyna